The monograph touches upon the problem of identifying a sacred beverage of haoma with real plants. Production of this drink, which occupied an important place in the religion of the Iranian-speaking communities of Central Asia, is localized on a specific geographical area of the Sakha-haomaavarga tribes – the cultural regions of Margiana and Bactria. The laboratory analysis of some containers found during excavations showed that hemp, poppy and ephedra were used to make a cult drink. For the first time in the publication uses the monuments of fine art order to confirm this hypothesis. On the basis of iconographic analysis, it makes an attempt to identify the images of plants that have a similar shape (tulip, pomegranate, poppy). There are some stone items that could be used to make a cult drink and in the performance of a religious ceremony. The work involves written sources, archaeological data and monuments of fine art.