Era: Kh.G. Akhun-babayev;
Present publication is devoted to the results of long archaeological studies on the territory of the ancient settlement of Afrasiab (ancient Samarkand) conducted in the 1980s. These excavations enabled to identify the stratigraphy of the cultural layers in the central part of the site, as well as clarify its historical period and socio-topographic structure. The author also identified the period of creation of the unique mural paintings, and analyzed new numismatic material and information on the ideology and religious cults existed in Samarkand during the Early Iron Age.